Childhood Disorders

Classification of Disorders :

Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adoslescence

Mental retardation:

Abnormal intellectual functioning; onset during development period; associated with impaired maturation, learning, and social maladjustment; classified according to intelligence quotient (I.Q.) as borderline (70 to 80), mild (55 to 70), moderate (40 to 55), severe (25 to 40 ), profound (below 25).

Learning disorders:

Maturational deficits in development associated with difficulty in acquiring specific skills in mathematics, writing, and reading.

Motor skills disorders:

Impairments in the development of motor coordination (called developmental coordination disorder). Children with the disorder are often clumsy and uncoordinated.

Communication disorders:

Developmental impairment resulting in difficulty in producing age-appropriate sentences (expressive language disorder), difficulty in using and understanding words (mixed receptive -expressive language disorder), difficulty in making expected speech sounds (phonological disorder), and disturbances in fluency, rate, and rhythm of speech (stuttering).

Pervasive developmental disorders:

Characterized by autistic, atypical withdrawn behavior, gross immaturity, inadequate development, and failure to develop separate identity from mother.

Attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders:

Characterized by inattention, over aggressiveness, delinquency, destructiveness, hostility, feeling of rejection, negativism, or impulsiveness.

Feeding and eating disorders of infancy or early childhood:

Characterized by disturbed or bizarre feeding and eating habits that usually begin in childhood or adolescence and continue into adulthood. Divided into pica (eating non nutritional substances) and rumination disorder (regurgitation).

Tic disorders:

Characterized by sudden involuntary, recurrent, stereotyped motor movement or vocal sounds.

Elimination disorders:

Inability to sudden maintain bowel control (encopresis) or bladder control (enuresis) because of physiological or psychological immaturity.

Other disorders of infancy, childhood, or adolescence:

Selective mutism (voluntary refusal to speak), reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood (severe impairment of ability to relate, beginning before age 5), stereotypic movement disorder (thumb sucking, nail biting, skin picking), and separation anxiety disorder (cannot separate from home because of anxiety).